参考サイト1：STATE POLICY BRIEFS
States are wrestling with these immediate pressures while also trying to address long-term concerns about education, economic competitiveness and health care.
All the while, public managers and elected officials must uphold the principles that taxpayers expect; thrift, accountability, equity and transparency.
In this environment, all areas of spending, including the arts, are under increased scrutiny. Lawmakers may question whether government has a legitimate role to play in the arts and why the arts should receive funds when so many other needs are pressing.
State arts agency proves that when policymakers understand how the arts benefit government and citizens, they find a way to continue support, even during hard financial times.
Government’s role in arts support
3 responsibilities every government has toward its citizens.
The oldest and simplest justification for government is as protector: protecting citizens from violence.
Train and equip an army, and a police force; to build courts and jails; to elect and appoint the officials;
Regarding foreign threats, government as protector requires the ability to meet and treat with other governments as well as to fight them.
Government as provider of goods or services that individuals cannot provide individually for themselves.
The basic economic infrastructure of human connectivity falls into this category:
But capital necessary is so great and the public benefit so obvious that ultimately the government takes over.
spend money on science
Research helps develop more effective treatments for cancer. It also help us understand how to prevent cancer, as well as diagnose it earlier.
Investing in UK science also boosts the UK economy.
Between 2000 and 2008, more than half of productivity growth in the UK was due to science and innovation.
Should university education be free?
Positive externalities of higher education. Generally university education does offer some external benefits to society. Higher education leads to a more educated and productive workforce. Countries with high rate of university education generally have higher levels of innovation and productive growth.
Equality. University education should be free to ensure equality of opportunity. If students have to pay for university education, this may dissuade them. In theory, students can take out loans or work part-time, but this may be sufficient to discourage students from studying and instead may enter the job market earlier.
Increased specialization of work. The global economy has forced countries to specialize in higher tech and higher-value added products or services. There is a greater need for skilled graduates who can contribute to these high-tech industry.
But many graduates are now leaving university to take jobs which do not require a degree.
Causing UK education to lag behind other countries.
If people have to pay to go to university, you could argue that they would value the education more.
abolish university fees
decide to boost scholarships for underprivileged students instead
The rationale was that the students would not value education if it was free.
I often see free food in schools thrown into the garbage bin.
It is surprising that a former deputy prime minister did not focus on more pressing issues such as graduate unemployment, particularly among people from the most disadvantaged households.
While access to higher education has improved significantly, there are serious issues regarding success for the B40. Free tuition may be relevant to this group.
Enrolments tend to be dominated by people from the upper crusts of society. Letting them study for free means that taxpayers who never benefit personally from university education end up subsidizing those who do – the opposite of progressing taxation system.
Its main goal to help struggling workers forced to retrain because of technological change.
参考サイト6：WHY SAVE NATURAL AREAS?
our remaining natural areas serve important roles in the study of a number of areas.
Natural areas contain the biological raw material necessary for the development of products that could greatly benefit the health, diversity and genetic well-being of man.
A new wonder drug, yet to be discovered, may now exist only in some inconspicuous organism harbored in a natural preserve.
Already approximately half of drugs currently in use contain derivatives of wild plants, yet only a small percentage of all plants have been investigated for their potential in such uses. The need to protect the remaining 98 percent until they can be researched is obvious.
One of the most important benefits to be derived from natural areas is the recreational benefit they provide. This is evidence by increasing numbers of people who turn to forests and nature preserves in order to escape the hustle-bustle of our fast pacing society.
The quiet enjoyment of nature
Healthy natural areas can offer substantial economic benefits to our communities, as well. Wetlands help with flood protection and the removal of pollutants from our water supply
Minor modifications can be made to adapt existing buildings to compatible new uses.
Systems can be upgraded to meet modern building requirements and codes.
six practical reasons to save old buildings
What is historic, and worth saving, varies with the beholder (beholder: a person who sees or observes someone or something), but some definition is urgent.
Old buildings have intrinsic value.
When you tear down (tear down: demolish) an old building, you never know what’s being destroyed.
Tourists and long-term residents are able to witness the aesthetic and cultural history of an area.
The preservation of historic buildings is a one-way street. There is no chance to renovate or to save a historic site once it is gone. And we can never be certain about (~を確信して) what will be valued in the future. This reality brings to light the importance of locating and saving buildings of historic significance – because once a piece of history is destroyed, it is lost forever.